Note that RGBE 8888 is a very lossy encoding of floating point HDR images to begin with. It is really not appropriate as a working HDR image format if further processing will be applied that may magnify the errors. A half-float format is probably a better choice. If you do use RGBE HDR at least use the correct conversions which I will provide here. (See Greg Ward's article on HDR encodings and also nice table of dynamic range and accuracy of various HDR file formats).

The Radiance HDR RGBE encoding stores 3-channel floating point RGB using four 8-bit components. It takes the RGB floats and finds the exponent of the largest component, sends that exponent in E, then shifts the components to put the largest component's top bit at 128 and sends them as linear 8 bits.

In making the corrected version, I have been guided by 3 principles in order of priority : 1. ensure existing RGBE HDR images are correct encodings, 2. treat the original Radiance implementation as defining the file format, 3. minimize the error of round trip encoding.

With no further ado, let's have the correct RGBE conversion, then we'll talk about the details :

RGBE encoding puts the largest component in the range [128,255). It actually only has 7 bits of mantissa. The smaller components are put on a shared exponent with the largest component, which means if you ever care about tiny values in the non-maximal component this encoding is terrible (as are any shared-exponent encodings). There are much better packings of RGB floats to 32 bits that store more useful bits of precision.

Let's now look at the broken version that's being widely used. It uses the same encoder as above, but in the decoder the bad version does :

// RGBE 8888 -> float RGB // BAD decode restoration, don't copy me rgbf[0] = rgbe[0] * fexp; rgbf[1] = rgbe[1] * fexp; rgbf[2] = rgbe[2] * fexp;missing the biases by half.

Essentially this is just a quantization problem. We are taking floats and quantizing them down to 8 bits. Each 8 bit index refers to a "bucket" or range of float values. When you restore after quantizing, you should restore to the middle of the bucket. (with non-uniform error metrics or underlying probability distributions, the ideal restoration point might not be the middle; more generally restore to the value that minimizes error over the expected distribution of input values).

The broken version is essentially doing a "floor" on both the quantization and restoration.

floor quantization : +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ |0 |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ -> floor restoration : *0 *1 *2 *3 *4 *5 -> bias 0.5 restoration : *0.5 *1.5 *2.5 *3.5 *4.5 *5.5the rule of thumb is that you need an 0.5 bias on either the quantization side or the restoration side. If you do floor quantization, do +0.5 in restoration. If you do centered quantization (+0.5) you can do do integer restoration.

The broken version is just a bad quantizer that restores value ranges to one edge of the bucket. That's creating a net shift of values downward and just creates error that doesn't need to be there. On random RGB floats :

** Maximum relative error : **

Correct RGBE encoding : ** 0.3891% **

Bad floor-floor RGBE encoding : ** 0.7812% **

(percentage error relative to largest component).

Note this is a LOT of error. If you just took a real number in [0,1) and quantized it to 8 bits, the maximum error is 0.195% , so even the correct encoding at around 0.39% error is double that (reflecting that we only have 7 bits of precision in the RGBE encoding), and the bad encoding at around 0.78% is double that again (it's equal to the maximum error of uniform quantization if we only had 6 bits of precision).

Reference test code that will print these errors : test_rgbe_error.cpp

I have where possible tried to make this corrected RGBE quantizer match the original HDR file IO from Greg Ward's Radiance . I believe we should treat the Radiance version as canonical and make HDR files that match it. I have adopted a small difference which I note in Appendix 4. The change that I propose here actually makes the encoder match the description of its behavior better than it did before (see Appendix 4). the original Radiance code does floor quantization and midpoint restoration, like here. The broken version was introduced later.

The broken floor-floor code has been widely copied into many tools used in games (such as STBI and NVTT), hopefully those will be fixed soon. Fortunately, the encoder does not need to be changed, only the decode code is changed, so existing HDR images are okay. They can be loaded with the corrected restoration function and should see an improvement in quality for free.

That's it! We'll followup some details in appendices for those who are interested.

Appendix 1 :

Correct conversion in raw text if the pastebin isn't working :
```
```

```
// float RGB -> U8 RGBE quantization
void float_to_rgbe(unsigned char * rgbe,const float * rgbf)
{
// rgbf[] should all be >= 0 , RGBE does not support signed values
float maxf = rgbf[0] > rgbf[1] ? rgbf[0] : rgbf[1];
maxf = maxf > rgbf[2] ? maxf : rgbf[2];
if ( maxf <= 1e-32f )
{
// Exponent byte = 0 is a special encoding that makes RGB output = 0
rgbe[0] = rgbe[1] = rgbe[2] = rgbe[3] = 0;
}
else
{
int exponent;
float scale;
frexpf(maxf, &exponent);
scale = ldexpf(1.f, -exponent + 8);
rgbe[0] = (unsigned char)( rgbf[0] * scale );
rgbe[1] = (unsigned char)( rgbf[1] * scale );
rgbe[2] = (unsigned char)( rgbf[2] * scale );
rgbe[3] = (unsigned char)( exponent + 128 );
}
}
// U8 RGBE -> float RGB dequantization
void rgbe_to_float(float * rgbf,const unsigned char * rgbe)
{
if ( rgbe[3] == 0 )
{
rgbf[0] = rgbf[1] = rgbf[2] = 0.f;
}
else
{
// the extra 8 here does the /256
float fexp = ldexpf(1.f, (int)rgbe[3] - (128 + 8));
rgbf[0] = (rgbe[0] + 0.5f) * fexp;
rgbf[1] = (rgbe[1] + 0.5f) * fexp;
rgbf[2] = (rgbe[2] + 0.5f) * fexp;
}
}
```

```
```

Appendix 2 :

Why I prefer centered quantization.

Radiance HDR does floor quantization & centered restoration. I think it should have been the other way around (centered quantization & int restoration), but I don't propose changing it here because we should stick to the reference Greg Ward implementation, and match how existing .hdr files have been encoded.

The reason I prefer centered quantization is that it exactly preserves integers and powers of two. (it has a small bonus of not needing a bias at decode time).

If your input real numbers are evenly distributed with no special values, then there's no reason to prefer either style, they're equal. But usually our inputs are not evenly distributed and random, we often deal with inputs where values like 0.0 and 1.0 or 256.0 are special and we'd like to preserve them exactly.

If you do centered quantization, these restore exactly. If you do floor quantization and then have an 0.5 bias on dequantization to do centered restoration, values like 0 shift to be in the center of their bucket.

In the correct RGBE encoding above, a float input of 1.0 is restored as 1.0039063 (= 1 + 1/256), because 1.0 corresponds to the bottom edge of a quantization bucket, and we restore to the middle of the bucket.

For example for non-HDR images the quantization I like is :

// U8 to float // map 1.0 to 255 // centered quantization unsigned char unit_float_to_u8(float f) { // f in [0,1.0] // scale up to [0,255] , then do centered quantization : // eg. values after *255 in [0.5,1.5] -> 1 // clamp before casting if you aren't sure your floats are bounded! return (unsigned char) (f * 255.f + 0.5f); } float u8_to_unit_float(unsigned char u8) { // u8 in [0,255] // scale to [0,1.0] // do straight mapped dequantization : return u8 * (1.f/255); }

It seems that perhaps the desire to preserve 1.0 exactly is what got us into this whole mess. A widely referenced extraction from Radiance was posted here : bjw rgbe, but with a crucial flaw. The reconstruction was changed to remove the bias :

/* standard conversion from rgbe to float pixels */ /* note: Ward uses ldexp(col+0.5,exp-(128+8)). However we wanted pixels */ /* in the range [0,1] to map back into the range [0,1]. */Ward had a valid quantizer (floor encode, bias decode), but it disappeared in this version.

The correct way to get 1.0 preserved would have been to do a centered quantization (bias on the encode). As noted previously I don't recommend changing that now as it would mean existing hdr files were encoded wrong, and it deviates from Ward's original Radiance implementation, which should be taken as defining the format. We should consider the BJW implementation to simply have an incorrect decoder. (the BJW encoder is okay, but it does also suffer from the small flaw discussed in Appendix 4)

Appendix 3 :

RGBE encoder using IEEE floating point bit manipulations.

I don't post this as a suggested optimization, but rather because I think it illuminates what's actually going on in the RGBE encoding.

The IEEE floating points that we are encoding are sign-exponent-mantissa :

SEEEEEEEEMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMTo send the largest component with RGBE, what we are doing is taking the top 7 bits of the mantissa, add the implicit 1 bit ahead of those, and put those in 8 bits.

000000001MMMMMMM0000000000000000What we're doing with dropping the bits below the top 7 is the floor quantization, whatever those bits were, they're gone. The +0.5 bias on restoration is equivalent to saying we expect all of those dropped bits to be equally likely, hence their average value is 10000 (the highest drop bit is turned on, the rest are left off).

000000001MMMMMMM1000000000000000

The components that aren't the highest are forced onto the same exponent as the highest; this shifts in zeros from the left, their mantissa bits are shifted out the bottom of the word, and then we grab the top 8 bits of them.

The "ldexpf" we do in the correct implementation is just making a pure power of two, which is just an exponent in IEEE floats (all mantissa bits zero). When you multiply that on another float, you're just adding to the exponent part. Unfortunately there aren't standard C ways to do simple float operations like getting an exponent or adding to an exponent so we'll have to dig into the bits.

The full operation is :

union float_and_bits { float f; unsigned int bits; }; // float RGB -> U8 RGBE quantization void float_to_rgbe_bits(unsigned char * rgbe,const float * rgbf) { float_and_bits fab[3]; fab[0].f = rgbf[0]; fab[1].f = rgbf[1]; fab[2].f = rgbf[2]; unsigned int max_bits = fab[0].bits > fab[1].bits ? fab[0].bits : fab[1].bits; max_bits = max_bits > fab[2].bits ? max_bits : fab[2].bits; int max_exp = (max_bits >> 23) - 127; //max_bits == 0 is exact float zero //(int)max_bits < 0 means the sign bit is on (illegal negative input) //max_exp == 128 is NaN if ( (int)max_bits <= 0 || max_exp <= -100 || max_exp == 128 ) { // Exponent byte = 0 is a special encoding that makes RGB output = 0 rgbe[0] = rgbe[1] = rgbe[2] = rgbe[3] = 0; } else { // float exponent is a value in [1,2)*e^exp , we want [0.5,1) so do ++ max_exp++; unsigned int mantissa = 1 << 23; int exp0 = (fab[0].bits>>23) - 127; int exp1 = (fab[1].bits>>23) - 127; int exp2 = (fab[2].bits>>23) - 127; int man0 = (fab[0].bits & (mantissa-1)) | mantissa; int man1 = (fab[1].bits & (mantissa-1)) | mantissa; int man2 = (fab[2].bits & (mantissa-1)) | mantissa; man0 >>= min(max_exp - exp0 - 8 + 23,31); man1 >>= min(max_exp - exp1 - 8 + 23,31); man2 >>= min(max_exp - exp2 - 8 + 23,31); rgbe[0] = (unsigned char)( man0 ); rgbe[1] = (unsigned char)( man1 ); rgbe[2] = (unsigned char)( man2 ); rgbe[3] = (unsigned char)( max_exp + 128 ); } } // U8 RGBE -> float RGB dequantization void rgbe_to_float_bits(float * rgbf,const unsigned char * rgbe) { if ( rgbe[3] == 0 ) { rgbf[0] = rgbf[1] = rgbf[2] = 0.f; } else { float_and_bits fab; int exp = (int)rgbe[3] - 128 - 8; fab.bits = (exp+127)<<23; float fexp = fab.f; rgbf[0] = (rgbe[0] + 0.5f) * fexp; rgbf[1] = (rgbe[1] + 0.5f) * fexp; rgbf[2] = (rgbe[2] + 0.5f) * fexp; } }this version using bit manipulation produces exactly identical encodings to the correct version I have posted before.

Appendix 4 :

Another common oddity in the RGBE encoders.

I have tried to stick to the original Radiance version where reasonable, but I have changed one part that is widely done strangely.

The major bias error we have talked about before is in the decoder. This error is in the encode side, but unlike the bias this error is not a large one, it's a small correction and doesn't change the values intended to be stored in the format.

In my correct version, this part :

int exponent; float scale; frexpf(maxf, &exponent); scale = ldexpf(1.f, -exponent + 8);is just trying to get the exponent of the largest component, and then form a pure power of 2 float that multiplies by 256 / 2^exponent.

This has been widely done strangely in other implementations. The majority of other implementations do this :

divide by self version : scale = frexp(maxf,&exponent) * 256.0/maxf;frexp returns the mantissa part of the float, scaled to [0.5,1), so when you divide that by maxf what you're doing is cancelling out the mantissa part and leaving just the exponent part of maxf (2^-exponent).

This is not only a bit strange, it is in fact worse. scale made this way does not come out as an exact power of 2, because floating point math is not exact (a reciprocal then multiply does not give back exact 1.0). This divide-by-yourself method does not produce exactly the same encoding as the bit extraction reference version above.

Aside from small drifts of 'scale' causing small error in reconstrction, if it ever got too big, you could have another problem. Our value is supposed to be in [128,256) (inclusive on the bottom of the range, exclusive on the top). That means you can just cast to unsigned char. But if scale could ever be slightly over 1.0, you could get up to 256 exactly, then the cast to unsigned char would turn into 0, which would be a huge error.

This appears to have motivated Greg Ward in the original Radiance code to add a safety margin :

original Radiance code version : /ray/src/common/color.c line 272 d = frexp(d, &e) * 255.9999 / d;The 255.9999 fudge ensures that imprecise math can't make us incorrectly get to 256. It's an ugly way to handle it, and it does cause a small loss of quality, so despite my goal to stick to the original Radiance implementation I am not copying this.

(Radiance was started in 1985 when IEEE compliant floating point rounding was by no means standard, so we can certainly forgive it some fudgy bias factors)

The way I have shown creates a pure power of two scale factor, so it can't suffer from any drift of the scale due to floating point imprecision. This actually matches the described behavior of the RGBE encoding better than previous versions.

For example from Wikipedia :

Radiance calculates light values as floating point triplets, one each for red, green and blue. But storing a full double precision float for each channel (8 bytes × 3 = 24 bytes) is a burden even for modern systems. Two stages are used to compress the image data. The first scales the three floating point values to share a common 8-bit exponent, taken from the brightest of the three. Each value is then truncated to an 8-bit mantissa (fractional part). The result is four bytes, 32 bits, for each pixel. This results in a 6:1 compression, at the expense of reduced colour fidelity.

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